Only the walls were brought to the height "as far as you can reach with your hand while standing on a horse."
The architectural development of the city not only corresponded to the general stylistic search of time, it showed a desire for free formation, which was due primarily to the taste preferences of customers, who tended to eclectic mixes of heterogeneous elements of architectural decor filled with " quotes "from past eras.
However, in the Yelisavetgrad architectural context, eclecticism was organically combined with modernism, which entered the urban environment simultaneously with eclectic innovations. Against the background of the dominant in the XIX century. buildings of the late empire, expressing the official spirit of the empire, a kind of "dialogue" of eclecticism and modernism significantly enriched and enlivened the artistic features of the architectural landscape of Yelisavetgrad, where there is a visible denial of classical norms, which seem to "bore" residents. But at the same time, some elements of neoclassicism, along with other techniques arise in the decoration of buildings.
Technical innovations perceived by urban planning practice have added to the overall picture of urban renewal and functional benefits. In 1893, a Russian engineer, MI Altukhov, built a water tower and launched a water supply system, as a result of which the central boulevard in front of the City Duma building was supplemented by a fountain with a sculpture embodying Fertility.
Surrounded in 1886 by an iron lattice with granite columns and equipped with walkways, as well as evening lighting with oil lanterns, and among other things – a stage built for a brass band – the boulevard with greenery and a working fountain acquires special significance in the mythopoetic symbol. text of the city, as noted by the former mayor AN Pashutin, "the centrality of its city boulevard served as the only city celebration for the Yelisavetgrad public" [1, 118].
However, it should be noted that the popularity of the townspeople is still the City Garden, arranged in the early XIX century. by type of English park, and at the end of the century provided with special facilities for entertainment and recreation.
Thanks to the work of Kyiv engineers LI Brodsky and AA Abrahamson, an electric tram appeared in 1897, the route of which crossed the city from the station to the City Garden – the extreme points that marked the boundaries of urban space. New style trends have found application in the paving of streets and squares – in the city center there is a new masonry, known as "a la peacock feather".
The heyday of Yelisavetgrad architecture of this period is associated with the names of JV Pauchenko and OL Lishnevsky, who came to the city almost simultaneously: the first in 1895 after graduating from the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts received an invitation from Yelisavetgrad Mayor AN Pashutin to position of city architect; the second in 1897 after graduating from the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1893) returned to his hometown, where he inherited from his father icon-painting, iconostasis and gilding workshop.
Both architects are natives of Ukraine (O. Lishnevskaya was born in Kherson, received his first art education in Odessa), both acquired architectural design skills in major Russian cities, both, arriving in Elisavetgrad, were fascinated by the stylistic quest of their modern era and in their own way this passion for his own creative work.
O. Lishnevsky’s first major work in Yelisavetgrad was connected with the construction of the Women’s Gymnasium (now the main building of the Pedagogical University), built in the so-called "brick style" widespread in the 1880s and 1890s due to the cost-effectiveness of construction.
Focused on historical borrowings, this "style" allowed to use the possibilities of the actual brickwork in the plastic design of the wall surface. In the construction of this building the architect’s attraction to neo-Byzantine forms of decorating the facade in combination with elements of Renaissance decor (profiled interfloor drafts and cornices, imitation of rust) was revealed.
The decor was performed here when laying the walls with the use of shaped bricks. While still studying in St. Petersburg, O. Lishnevskaya also worked as an assistant to the St. Petersburg architect BI Hirshovich and mastered in practice the latest building trends of the late XIX century; during his stay in Yelisavetgrad (1895-1901) he designed and built more than fifteen buildings.
Neo-romantic views in the worldview of the architect were reflected in other Yelisavetgrad buildings, which combined the features of eclecticism with the inclusion of elements of Art Nouveau – Pushkin City School, City Bank Branch, Main Choral Synagogue, mansions Barsky, Elworth, Dolinsky and others. As a representative of the capital’s St. Petersburg School of Architecture, Lishnevskaya gravitated to large, representative buildings, richly decorated with ornaments, always different, figured window openings and gables. It was also important during the years of his activity that a new city plan was created under Lishnevsky, new boundaries and dimensions for the construction of public and private buildings were determined.
Pauchenko’s works also turned out to be close tendencies of combining eclecticism and modernism, mastered by the young architect through acquaintance with Moscow architectural trends of the end of the XIX century, where the attraction to neo-Russian or neo-Byzantine https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ forms in the already marked "brick style" prevailed; however, the architect seeks to include in his buildings stylized elements and techniques of wooden architectural monuments that have developed in the centuries-old history of Ukrainian construction, adding dynamism to the facades due to color (red and white walls), the introduction of windows of various shapes, sometimes slight asymmetry, complicated profile of roofs.
According to J. Pauchenko’s projects, about twenty buildings were built in the city center: the International Credit Bank, the Illusion Theater, St. Anne’s Hospital, the private houses of Weissenberg, Matthews, and others. Interesting is his own house (modern museum of A. Osmerkin), where the chamber character of the building fully corresponds to the general impression of a fairy-tale tower.
It is not known how these two architects communicated with each other, but competition between them took place, as evidenced, for example, by a case that occurred in their creative life, when fate brought their names together: O. Lishnevsky has already begun work on designing the hospital. Anna, when suddenly the customer AM Dmytryan, who was dissatisfied with the proposed project, transfers the authority to complete the hospital to J. Pauchenko.
Shortly afterwards, Lishnevsky left Yelisavetgrad, forever linking his creative biography with St. Petersburg. But he still returned to Ukraine and built near Kyiv, creating projects for Katerynoslav and Sevastopol. Ya. Pauchenko continued his activity in his hometown until his death in 1914.
In addition to the above-mentioned architects, other masters of construction art worked in Yelisavetgrad at that time, whose names are not always easy to establish. Features of modernism in the facades and interiors of various buildings of the city in the early twentieth century. have not been deprived of the neighborhood with eclecticism.
It is important that from the end of the XIX century the architectural and spatial environment of the central part of Yelisavetgrad begins to change significantly, the streets are built on the principle of dense, compact arrangement of buildings that increase in height by at least one floor and differ in stylistic characteristics of facades.
Supervision of the construction is conducted by the city council (its powers included the functions of the building committee abolished in 1862), which closely monitored the ordering of streets, houses and city roads. The city acquired a peculiar appearance, but, unfortunately, many buildings of that time have not survived in the complex history of the twentieth century, for which in relation to the historical past will be prominent "minus context" (Yu. M. Lotman) …
Historical essay of Elisavetgrad. Comp. and published by AN Pashutin. – Elisavetgrad: Lithotipography no. Shpolyanskikh, 1897. Lotman Yu. M. Architecture in the context of culture // Lotman Yu. M. Semiosphere. – St. Petersburg: Art – St. Petersburg, 2004. P. 676-683. Little Paris. Elisavetgrad in an old postcard / Author. -const. VV Petrakov, VP Mashkovtsev. – Moscow: Pinakothek, 2004. Ovsiychuk V. Classicism and romanticism in Ukrainian art. – K., 2001.
Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernihiv as an architectural monument of Kievan Rus. Abstract
The oldest architectural monument of the times of Kievan Rus, older than St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev, which is well preserved to this day and continues to function – is the Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernihiv
The Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernihiv is not just a decoration of Chernihiv, a shrine of the ancient Chernihiv-Siversky principality, but also a real architectural marvel, says Lyubov POTAPENKO.
The planning and spatial solution of the cathedral is unique: none of the famous ancient Russian temples has such a construction. It combines the scheme of the Byzantine cross-domed church with elements of the Romanesque basilica. This fact can be explained as follows: the founder of the Transfiguration Cathedral, Prince Mstislav (brother of Yaroslav the Wise), who ruled in Chernihiv in Tmutarakan, invited masters who were familiar with the traditions of religious construction in Asia Minor and the Caucasus, where at that time and similar temples were distributed.
So Prince Mstislav Tmutarakansky of Chernihiv laid the name of the cathedral a few years before his brother Yaroslav the Wise began construction of St. Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv. Namely – somewhere around 1030.
According to legend, the stone temple was built on the site of a wooden church, which, in turn, was built on the site of a pagan temple. The chronicles also clarify that after the successful march of Mstislav Tmutarakansky and Yaroslav the Wise to Red Russia (modern Galicia) and the annexation of its land to the ancient Russian state, the construction of a majestic building in the middle of the prince’s child began. But, according to the same chronicle, in 1036 Mstislav went hunting, fell ill and died.
Only the walls were brought to the height "as far as you can reach with your hand while standing on a horse." However, the prince was buried in this unfinished temple. It is possible that the church was not completed when the Chernihiv principality entered the state of Yaroslav the Wise, but under the next Chernihiv prince Svyatoslav, who was also buried in this church, although Svyatoslav died as Grand Duke in Kyiv.