In 1879, a deep cave called Altamira was discovered in the Iberian Mountains (Spain).
Finding in the gods and goddesses of antiquity, in the pagan rites of rival Christ and the Christian cult, the church fathers considered the idea of continuity and historical connection of Christianity and paganism dangerous and betrayed its oblivion in anathema. The policy of the Christian church in relation to pagan religions also changed: after a short period of coexistence of Christianity and paganism, a long epoch of persecution and persecution of pagans began.
However, it was not possible to completely destroy the popularity of pagan beliefs and rituals among the population of those countries where Christianity became the dominant religion. The greatest interest here was and continues to be used by pagan sorcery, which, so to speak, went underground. This is also because the struggle against all sorts of witches, sorcerers, sorcerers, magi, etc., occupied a significant place in the activities of the Christian church.
A. Yu. Grigorenko "Various magic" M., "Soviet Russia" 1987 G. L. Kurbatov, E. D. Frolov, I. Ya. Froyanov "Christianity" "Lenizdat" 1988 K. Kautsky "The origin of Christianity" M., "Publishing House of Political Literature" 1990.N. V. Ryabushkin, GI Tsaregorodtsev "or God’s punishment?" M., "Publishing House of Political Literature" 1988
Christian cult and magic in it. Abstract
Various magic. Causes of magic. Occultism. Magic in the Christian cult. Religion of slaves and freedmen. Christian sacraments. Communion. Baptism. Anointing and anointing. Confession. Wedding. Priesthood. The evolution of the relationship between Christianity and paganism
North. Everything is covered in darkness. Ghostly figures in hoods, as in puppeteers, illuminated by the light of the sacrificial fire burning in the right corner of the cave. In the center of the cave is a draped black altar with the body of a naked woman. Next to the altar on a stone table, surrounded by black candles, in a sinister smile, a whitish human skull will rock. The High Priestess, also all in black, holds a sword in her right hand, the blade of which, rejecting the reflections of fire, seems alive. By casting a spell, she summons the magical powers of the universe. The horned deity looks at her silently and dispassionately from above.
What it is? This is not a scene from a historical or horror movie about the devil. None. This is one of the gathering of fans of black magic. It’s no secret that such orgies attract people today. Moreover, it is believed that modern society is experiencing a renaissance of occultism and primitive witchcraft. Witchcraft, sorcery, sorcery, witchcraft, occultism – these words now do not leave the pages of magazines and newspapers.
Causes of magic
There are different definitions of magic. However, all of them invariably note one of its features, namely: it is always based on the belief in supernatural forces and in the ability of man to control the world around him with the help of these forces.
“Magic – a ritual associated with the belief in the ability of man to supernaturally affect people, animals, natural phenomena, as well as imaginary perfumes and gods” (Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 9, 15, 152).
Magical action, as a rule, consists of the following basic elements: a material object (substance), ie a tool; verbal spell – or request tpebovanie, which appeals to supernatural forces; certain actions and movements without words are a rite.
Scientists attribute the time of origin of magic to the period of primitive society, more precisely – to the Stone Age. There is evidence that magical rites and beliefs already existed among the Neanderthals, who lived 80-50 thousand years ago. We are talking about the burial (warehouses) of bear cysts in the Mousterian caves Drachenloch (Switzerland), Peterschelle (Germany), Regurda (France), which are considered evidence of hunting magic (cave bears at the time of the past one of the main objects of human hunting). Primitive people, according to some scientists, preserving bear skulls and cysts, hoped that this would allow the killed animal to return to life and thus increase the number of these animals.
In many tribes that retained the original way of life in the late nineteenth century and had similar rites, burying cysts and skulls of slaughtered animals, these rites were given just such an explanation.
As for the monuments of the Upper Paleolithic period discovered in the XIX – XX centuries (Late Stone Age – 40 – 10 thousand years ago), they, and almost all scientists agree with this, indicate the presence of primitive man already developed magical ideas and rites. In 1879, a deep cave called Altamira was discovered in the Iberian Mountains (Spain). On the walls and ceiling of this cave by the hand of the original artist were depicted wild boars, bison, deer and other species of animals that were hunted by people of that time.
Remains of three sculptures depicting cave lions were discovered in the Motespan cave discovered after Altamira in France. Traces of darts and spears thrown by primitive people into this sculpture were clearly visible on the neck and chest of one lion. The other two sculptures were completely destroyed as a result of frequent hits.
The most popular among such finds (and today there are more than 100) is the famous Lyasko cave opened in 1940. This cave gained its popularity due to the richness and abundance of images of primitive people found here. Most of these drawings, and some of them are truly huge, are perfectly preserved to this day.
In all the halls of the cave, in the transitions between them on the wall and ceiling, the original artist depicted in different poses the animals he saw around him: deer, bears, wild boars, etc. All drawings are colorful: three colors were used – black, yellow, red. Notches were made on the bodies of the animals and next to them, symbolizing the field of the dart and the wound of the beast. Many drawings bear traces of throwing real copies and darts at them. There are so many pictures that in some places they crawl on each other.
Why did primitive people paint the animals they hunted in such inconvenient, poorly lit, often inaccessible places – caves, their remote corridors and passages? Why, after finishing their work, did they not enjoy contemplating it, but destroyed it by throwing spears and darts at it? Ethnographic observations of the peoples who preserved the original way of life in the XIX – XX centuries help to answer these questions.
It buy essay now compare and contrast is known that the Australian aborigines before the hunt performed a special ritual: they drew a figure of a kangaroo on the sand and during the ritual dance stuck their battle spears into the depicted animal.
At the same time, they thought that if they got into the picture of the animal, they would get into the animal itself during the hunt. Apparently, primitive man thought the same. Here we can cite the words of Karl Marx about fetishism: “Fantasy inflamed by desire creates in the fetishist the illusion that” an indifferent thing “can change its inherent properties only to satisfy his whim.”
A similar illusion was created in the original participants of the magical ritual, which symbolizes the death and killing of an animal. The “fiery fantasy” of the performers of the ritual turned the imitation of hunting into hunting itself, the ritual-magical “killing” of an animal into the real killing of an animal.
The real roots of the original belief in magic should be sought in the material and social conditions of their lives. The original state of mankind is sometimes depicted as full of bliss, when people, as mazunas of nature, received from it in the form of gifts everything necessary for life.
But the difficulties of primitive people, the harsh, sometimes tragic conditions of their lives are eloquently shown by the following figures: almost 50% of Neanderthals did not live to their twenties. The Cro-Magnon’s average life expectancy did not exceed 20 years.
Women and children were in the most difficult situation: 38% of Neanderthals died before the age of 11, almost none of the women lived to 25 years. Pithecanthropus and synanthropus mortality was even higher: 68% of synanthropes were under 14 years old.
These data were obtained by scientists in the study of bone remains of primitive people. The high mortality rate was often the result of frequent starvation, fatal injuries during hunting of large animals, which was natural and natural due to the underdevelopment of primitive productive forces, poverty and weakness of primitive technology.
The people of that era had only the simplest tools made of stone, cysts, wood. They were rude and could not provide a constant source of food. The ancient people earned their living by hunting, fishing, and gathering. However, the primitive hunter, despite all his skills and art, often remained without prey, and the fisherman without fish: the beast disappeared from the forest, the fish left the rivers. Plant food could be obtained only in certain months of the year.
The labor activity of primitive people, all the efforts of our distant ancestors, which aimed to provide themselves and their loved ones with means of subsistence, often ended in vain. This caused them a state of uncertainty in their abilities, uncertainty in the future. The lack of real funds that guarantee reliable and consistent results of production activities, and were the main reasons that the Stone Age man turned to the search for irrational means of practical impact on nature. Magical rituals and ceremonies appeared by similar means.
Thus, economic underdevelopment, the weakness of primitive humanity, expressed in the practical helplessness of man before nature, and became the social background on which the belief in magic grew.
Primitive people were convinced that by performing magical rites they come into contact with a supernatural force that can protect them from the elements of nature, from all evil forces and beings, to help achieve a practical goal that they are unable to achieve. by means of real receptions and means.
Specific forms of witchcraft were created by each clan, tribe, community independently, resulting in a myriad of magical rituals and ceremonies. Scientists have described and systematized literally thousands of sorcery rituals and beliefs that existed in different nations at different times.