Benes is one of the most tragic figures in the history of Czechoslovakia.

These developments laid the foundation for scientifically sound methods of calculation and design of transformers for automatic welding.

Heading the Institute of Electric Welding in 1953, B. Paton became the organizer of a wide front of purposeful basic research, which became the basis for the creation and application of many welding methods: semi-automatic, shielding gases, electroslag, microplasma, and others.

An important result of the study of phenomena and processes arising from the passage of electric current through various environments was the formation of a new promising industry of quality metallurgy – special electrometallurgy, which combines such methods of refined metals as electroslag, electron beam, plasma- arc remelting.

In the 1950s, B. Paton concentrated the efforts of a team of researchers on an in-depth study of the nature of the newly discovered electroslag process, on determining its duration and automation of basic mode parameters while developing technology for applying this process. This direction was divided into two interconnected branches, one of which continued to develop in the direction of welding technologies, and the other went beyond them and soon formed a series of independent electroslag technologies that became the basis for a new industry – special electrometallurgy. In the shortest possible time, new welding methods were found, technological modes were studied, and numerous prototypes of a new generation of industrial welding equipment were created.

Research in the field of electroslag remelting has also been successful. As B. Paton noted at the XX Congress of the International Welding Institute in London, “welding has done a great service to metallurgy. It was in its bowels that patterns and phenomena were discovered that formed the basis for a completely new branch of metallurgical production , which can be called special electrometallurgy. “

An in-depth study of the essence of electroslag remelting, its physicochemical laws and electrotechnical characteristics was summarized in the monograph “Electroslag remelting” (1963), soon translated into the United States and Great Britain. Technological developments culminated in the creation of dozens of inventions introduced in industrial equipment for electroslag remelting. The patenting of developments of the Institute of Electric Welding in developed countries, including the United States, Germany, Japan. The leading position of domestic welding science and technology in the field of electroslag remelting is widely recognized in the world.

In the early 1970s, new methods of electroslag casting were developed, which soon became independent in the production of metallurgical equipment. Later, electroslag chill and centrifugal casting began to develop, which widely expanded the scope of electroslag technologies. Currently, the range of such technologies (including electroslag welding) includes about 20 technological processes of remelting, casting, surfacing, surface treatment and others, without which modern metallurgy and mechanical engineering are impossible.

B. Paton considers the development of fundamentally new automated control systems for welding processes, installations and mechanized lines using computer and microprocessor technology, the creation of welding robots to be an important strategic direction in the development of welding and electrometallurgical technologies.

Active creative activity and talent of the leader put B. Paton in the ranks of outstanding organizers of science, known in the world. For many years he headed the Coordinating Council for Welding, the Council of Chief Welders of the USSR, the Scientific Council “New Welding Processes and Welded Structures”, the Scientific Council “New Processes for Production and Processing of Metal Materials” New materials and technologies of their production and processing “. He did a lot for the development of international cooperation of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. His scientific authority in the world is very high.

Managing the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, B. Paton became the initiator and leader of numerous organizational innovations aimed at improving basic and applied research, to increase the efficiency of science. The Institute of Electric Welding has become a testing ground for organizational innovations, the cradle of a unique scientific and engineering school.

For the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, the programs of fundamentalization of scientific research in technical branches of science and purposeful basic research, the implementation of which led to radical changes in the organization of research, proposed by B. Paton were of perspective importance. Numerous organizational innovations in the Academy of Sciences – specialized units of the design base in institutes, experimental workshops, interdepartmental laboratories, research plants, scientific and technical complexes, engineering centers – made a significant contribution to improving the links between science and industry in 1970- 1980.

However, today, in another era, in the transition to market relations, there are reasons to consider them as the most important prerequisites for intensifying the process of innovative economic development, as the real germs of such new structures as technology parks, technopolises, business incubators.

The collapse of the USSR and the CMEA as a result of the political and socio-economic crisis led to the disintegration of scientific systems, especially the scientific potential of Central and Eastern Europe. The destruction of the single scientific space of the so-called “second world system of science” had a detrimental effect on the entire system of scientific communications. Academician B. Paton is the initiator and head of the International Association of Academies of Sciences.

B. Paton consistently defends the place and functions of the Academy of Sciences in society. The Academy of Sciences as the main center of basic science is focused on the search for new patterns and fundamentally new phenomena.

The development of basic science determines the intellectual level of society. As an independent non-governmental organization operating on the principles of self-government and self-regulation, the Academy of Sciences has every opportunity for high-quality and independent examination of socio-economic programs, which is especially important for today’s fast-paced world … Uniting the scientific elite of society, the Academy of Sciences has all the opportunities to improve the system of education and training.


Edward Benes as a politician. Abstract

The second Czechoslovak president, E. Beneš, is one of the most tragic figures in the history of Czechoslovakia. This was the opinion of E. Taborsky, Benes’s secretary during the Second World War. Some Czech historians share this view

What was E. Benes as a man and a politician? How did he want to see post-war Czechoslovakia? How did the international and domestic situation in the country change in 1945-1948, and how did the Czechoslovak president react to this? What was the tragedy of the situation in which Benes found himself at the end of his political career and life?

Eduard Benesh, one of the country’s leading politicians, has influenced its development for 30 years. He was born into a large peasant family in Kozlany on May 28, 1884. He received a brilliant upbringing, studying philosophy at Charles University, literature at the Sorbonne, law at Dijon, listening to lectures by famous professors at the University of Berlin. He knew French, English, German, and was deeply interested in sociology and art.

Together with TG Masaryk, he was one of the sources of the creation of an independent Czechoslovak state in 1918, becoming its permanent (until his election as president in 1935) Minister of Foreign Affairs. Benes also greatly influenced the domestic policy of the country, being one of the main representatives of the ruling group of the City, the leader of the National Socialist Party. In 1921-1922 he held the post of Prime Minister, in 1919-1926 and in 1929-1935 he was elected a deputy of the National Assembly.

E. Benesh took an active part in the creation and operation of the League of Nations, in 1923 -1927 he was a member of its Council, and in 1927-1928 – Chairman of the Security Committee. He represented Czechoslovakia at numerous international forums, was elected chairman of the Council of the League of Nations six times and chairman of its Assembly once.

Benes’s political conceptions in the interwar period were based on the need for a strong, economically stable Czechoslovakia in central Europe. Benes planned to preserve the Versailles system, relying on the League of Nations and international treaties, central to which was the alliance with France, as well as the Lesser Entente (military-political union of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Kingdom of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and Romania).

The economic crisis of the early 1930s exacerbated social relations and the national question in Czechoslovakia (Sudeten Germans, Hungarians in Slovakia, Poles in Teszyn Silesia, Slovak and Subcarpathian autonomy). With Hitler’s rise to power in Germany, Europe was threatened with a new war. In 1935, Benes, for economic and political reasons, concluded a Soviet-Czechoslovak allied treaty, which provided for mutual assistance if such a victim country of aggression was provided by France.

The general trend in the political development of Czechoslovakia’s neighbors during this period was the abandonment of democratic principles and a significant “correction” of the ruling regimes. Despite some modifications to the Czechoslovak parliamentary system, Czechoslovakia remained virtually the only island of democracy in this part of Europe.

In the mid-1930s, as a result of a sharp internal political struggle, Benes became president of Czechoslovakia, replacing TG Masaryk. It was a difficult time. The change in the international situation also affected the domestic situation in the country. Political parties of nationalist orientation became much more active, first of all the Sudeten German party of Henlein and the Slovak People’s Party (Ludaky), which received solid support from outside.

They put forward more and more demands of the government, creating conditions for international interference in the internal affairs of the state. The policy of “pacification” pursued by Britain and France, led in September 1938 to the conclusion of the Munich Agreement and the rejection of the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia.